By simplifying the indirect tax system and promoting economic growth, the Goods and Services Tax (GST) has dramatically altered the traditional tax environment. While GST has many positive effects, C Suite executives of a company must pay special attention to one key aspect: directors’ third-party liability.
Directors, in particular, need to be well-versed on the specifics of their personal liability under GST, as failure to do so could have disastrous consequences. This in-depth blog post delves into the nitty-gritty of GST responsibility that company directors may face, as well as the similar responsibilities imposed upon partners in a partnership firm and trustees of a trust.

Understanding GST and Its Applicability

GST is an indirect tax that is imposed on the provision of goods and services and is designed to be all-encompassing. It is based on the idea that goods and services should be subject to taxation at each point of the supply chain. This would make it possible to claim input tax credits throughout the many manufacturing and distribution stages. This eliminates the effect of taxes piling on top of one another, guaranteeing that the ultimate consumer is the one to bear the weight of the tax burden. GST rate may differ depending on the nature of the product or service, with the goal of fostering the expansion of certain industries while curbing the purchase of certain luxury items.

GST Liability of Directors

The directors of a company are personally responsible for the company's GST compliance and tax payment status under Indian law. Directors are personally liable for GST, interest, and penalties if the firm fails to pay the tax or file returns on time, as per Section 122 of the CGST Act. If the directors can show that the failure to pay or file was not their fault and they took reasonable precautions to avoid it, they will be released from liability.

The directors may be held personally responsible for the company's whole GST obligation. All tax, interest, and penalties are included in this total. Directors bear joint and several accountabilities. Thus the government can pursue full repayment from any one of them if it so chooses. Only if the company fails to pay the tax or file the returns will the directors be held responsible. In the ordinary course of business, directors are immune from personal liability for GST owed by the firm.

Directors can protect themselves against personal GST liability by keeping themselves up-to-date on GST legislation and making sure their firm has accurate records, files GST returns on time, and otherwise complies with all applicable requirements. To better understand GST and reduce the possibility of personal liability for directors, it may be helpful to seek professional assistance and hire a competent GST consultant.

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Comparison of GST Liability for Different Entities: Companies, Partnerships, and Trusts

GST is a significant type of indirect tax that has an effect on a wide range of companies engaged in commercial activity. Depending on the form of business, such as a company, a partnership, or a trust, there are various GST responsibility and compliance requirements. It is essential for them to have a solid understanding of these distinctions to ensure that businesses and individuals are in full compliance with the legislation governing the GST. Let's investigate the differences and similarities between the GST obligations of various companies, including:


Corporations, being distinct legal bodies, can be considered independent from their directors and shareholders. Therefore, the primary responsibility for satisfying the GST obligation is with the corporation itself. If the company's annual revenue is more than the specified threshold, it is necessary to register for the GST. When a business becomes registered, it is required to charge GST on all sales of products and services and then send that tax, less any credits for input taxes, to the government. Liability of directors of a company includes accountability for undoing the transaction or contributing reasonably to the company's assets.

Companies need to file regular GST returns in order to demonstrate compliance with the Goods and Services Tax (GST). These forms include GSTR-1 (outward supply), GSTR-3B (summary return), and GSTR-9 (annual return). In the event that directors of a company willfully evade or fail to comply with GST regulations, for example, they may be held personally accountable for the firm's GST obligations. In order to reduce the likelihood that they will be held personally liable for any violations of GST regulations, they must make it their responsibility to guarantee that the firm keeps proper records, files returns on time, and complies with other requirements.


GST burden in a partnership firm is distributed proportionally among the partners. In contrast to corporations, partnerships do not have their own distinct identity in the eyes of the law. As a result, individual partners are personally responsible for ensuring compliance with GST regulations and may be liable for GST obligations either jointly or severally.

It is necessary for each partner in a partnership business to have their own individual GSTIN (Goods and Services Tax Identification Number). Partnerships that have a turnover that is greater than the threshold amount are required to file for GST. Partnerships are required to collect GST on all supplies they make and file GST returns on a regular basis, just like businesses are.

Because of their individual accountability, partners in a partnership firm are personally accountable for ensuring that the GST is complied with. It is vital for each partner to actively participate in the firm's GST operations because failure to comply with GST requirements could result in personal liability for partners.


Trusts are legal entities that are administered by trustees. A trust's GST liability is separate from that of a company or partnership because trusts are not considered to be business enterprises. If the total amount of a trust's annual revenue is more than the statutory amount, the trust must register for the Goods and Services Tax. Trusts, just like businesses and partnerships, are required to collect GST on the goods and services they provide and to file GST returns.

Trustees, on the other hand, have a different GST responsibility than directors of companies or partners in businesses. Compliance with the GST regulations is under the trustees' purview because they are the responsible parties for the trust. They are responsible for ensuring that appropriate records are kept, that returns are filed on time, and that GST requirements are adhered to.

It is essential to keep in mind that the beneficiaries of a trust may also be liable for the GST in some circumstances. For instance, if the trust is involved in any kind of taxable supply, the beneficiaries may be held liable for the GST.

Factors Affecting Director's Personal Liability

Because the personal liability of directors under the GST can emerge in certain circumstances, it is essential for directors to be aware of the variables that may affect their individual liability in this regard. Directors' third-party liability, the majority of the time, is acting as the company's representatives and being personally responsible to third parties for any transaction made on the company's behalf. The following is a list of the most important variables that determine a director's personal obligation in relation to GST:

Role in Management and Decision-Making

The degree to which a director is involved in the management and decision-making processes of the company is an essential consideration in establishing whether or not the company is subject to GST. Directors who take an active role in making decisions pertaining to the Goods and Services Tax GST, such as tax planning, filing returns, and compliance tactics, run the risk of being held personally accountable for any intentional tax evasion or failure to comply with applicable regulations.

Willful Tax Evasion

If it is shown that a director has participated in wilful tax evasion or fraudulent tactics to evade GST payments or get excessive benefits, the director can be held personally accountable for the company's failure to pay taxes. Intentional tax evasion can involve making deliberate efforts to underreport taxable supply, improperly claiming an input tax credit, or issuing phony invoices.

Failure to Obtain GST Registration

Directors have the responsibility of seeing to it that their firm receives GST registration within the allotted time frame if the company's turnover is more than the prescribed level. In the event that this is not done, you may be held personally liable for the GST dues as well as any penalties.

Non-Filing or Delayed Filing of GST Returns

The directors of a company have an obligation to guarantee that the company routinely files GST returns within the due dates. The failure to file GST returns or the submission of those returns late might result in fines and could put directors in a position where they are personally liable.

Incorrect or Incomplete GST Compliance

Directors must ensure that the company's GST compliance is accurate and complete. Any errors, omissions, or discrepancies in the GST returns can attract scrutiny from the tax authorities, potentially leading to personal liability for directors.

Misrepresentation of Facts

Providing false or misleading information to tax authorities or misrepresenting the company's financial transactions can lead to personal liability for directors.

Key Managerial Personnel (KMP) Status

Directors who hold the position of Key Managerial Personnel (KMP) in the company may face higher scrutiny and accountability for GST compliance.

Failure to Pay GST Dues

Directors have a duty to ensure that the company remits the collected GST to the government within the specified timeline. Failure to pay the GST dues may result in personal liability for directors.

Non-Cooperation with Authorities

Directors are required to cooperate with GST authorities during audits, investigations, or inquiries. Non-cooperation or obstruction of the GST authorities' functions may result in personal liability for directors.

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